what happened in ussr in the 1930s

On August 7, 1932, the death penalty was introduced for theft of state or collective property; this law was immediately applied on a large scale. The Soviet Union was especially devastated due to the mass destruction of the industrial base that it had built up in the 1930s. Starting with the Kansas Securities Act in 1911, states adopted a variety of laws to protect investors from fraud and raise capital for business. Major events in the last 100 years. During the Depression, unemployment in capitalist nations enabled the Soviet Union to import thousands of engineers. But meanwhile the U.S.S.R. had established a further claim to the allegiance of the European left. Between 1929 and 1932, some 12.5 million new hands were reported to have entered urban work, 8.5 million of them from the countryside (though it was ruled that kulaks should not be given jobs in the factories). Сборная России по футболу", "Кузнецов Анатолий- Биография - Актеры советского и российского кино", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1930_in_the_Soviet_Union&oldid=972178165, Articles needing additional references from August 2020, All articles needing additional references, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 August 2020, at 16:32. The system became institutionalized. The cultural world also suffered: several hundred writers were executed or died in camps, including such figures as Osip Mandelshtam, Boris Pilnyak, and Isaak Babel. This was given to Japan by the Treaty of Versailles. At the same time unemployment relief was abolished on the grounds that there was “no more unemployment.” In January 1931 came the first law introducing prison sentences for violation of labour discipline—confined for the time being to railwaymen. The industrial growth rate originally laid down was 18–20 percent (in fact, this had already been achieved, at least on paper). Hitler, planning his attack on Poland, understood these signals and initiated serious contacts with Moscow. In fact, as more recent Soviet analyses have made clear, the whole thing was little more than a publicity gimmick. The characteristic fault was “giantism”—the party’s inclination to build on the largest and most ostentatious scale. These years had in fact seen the establishment of a new social and economic system. While previous purges under Stalin involved the persecutions of kulaks (wealthy peasants), Nepmen (people who engaged in private enterprise during the New Economic Policy of the 1920s), clergymen, and former oppositionists, the Great Purge is characterized by imprisonments and exec… Meanwhile, not only in the U.S.S.R. but in the communist movement the world over, “Stakhanovite” became the favourite word for a “shock worker” in any economic—or political—field. Communism had taught people that religion was “the opium of the masses” ( Karl Marx ) and church leaders were arrested and churches physically shut down. By mid-1934 it had become obvious that the whole conception was wrong. The country was submitted to an intensive campaign against hidden “enemies of the people.” This manifested itself both in a series of public, or publicized, trials, and in a massive terror operation against the population as a whole. The Great Purge, also known as the Great Terror, marks a period of extreme persecution and oppression in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s. The 16th Party Congress signaled the end of the Right “deviation” as the 15th Congress had marked that of the Left. Despite these differences, no major industrialized market economy escaped significant economic losses from the Great Depression/Slump of the 1920s and 1930s. During the Yezhovshchina, the U.S.S.R. was in fact submitted to one of the most brutal terrors in recorded history. During the 1930’s the public began to feel the effects of the Great Depression, many designers were restricted in experimenting with new fashions due to the fall in the economy and the rise in employment. During the NEP there was a reduction in the number of prisoners, who probably only numbered some tens of thousands at the end of the decade. Hitler’s accession to power in Germany had been facilitated by Moscow’s refusal to let the German Communist Party cooperate against him with the Social Democrats and others. The plan may be considered in two main aspects. In the governmental sphere the membership and candidate membership of the Politburo, as elected after the 17th Party Congress in 1934 and recruited at a Central Committee plenum in 1935, had consisted entirely of veteran Stalinists. The industrial, engineering, and economic cadres, including those of the railways, were heavily purged. In March 1938 came the third Moscow Trial. Timeline of Russian / Soviet History, 1914-1939 . Historical Events for the Year 1930. In fact, Nazi rule was at first interpreted as a victory for the communists, in that capitalism had been driven to its last resource, of naked force, and must soon collapse. This was to be supported by a socialized agriculture. It is now clear, in any case, that Stalin, if not in his public stance, felt threatened by any substantial relaxation and hampered by his inadequately obedient subordinates. The purges touched virtually every Armenian family. The same can be said of the Magnitogorsk foundries and other great factories. The first was the claim by the communists that they were implementing a rational and fulfillable plan. The purge also involved large numbers of the general public. Russia, Ukraine, Belorussia, Transcaucasia (present-day Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan) form Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. But militarily the “Winter War,” as the Russo-Finnish War of 1939–40 was called, started with a series of humiliating defeats for the U.S.S.R., and it was only in March that the sheer weight of numbers broke Finnish resistance. Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany (Third Reich) ... Catherine the Great of Russia. These were all fruitless, being exposed and denounced on short order. set impossibly high quotas to increase output of steel, coal, oil, and electricity to reach targets limiting consumer goods. In the Soviet Union, the Great Depression helped solidify Joseph Stalin's grip on power. In July 1936 came the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War against insurgents led by General Francisco Franco and heavily supported by Germany and Italy. From about 1928-1953 the Soviet Union was a Stalinist dictatorship. This time the charges included espionage, sabotage, and treason, in addition to terrorism. Hence, everything had to be handled on the basis of myth and coercion rather than through rationality and cooperation. Arizona scientists reveal their newest discovery -- a ninth planet they name Pluto, … Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. He was reported to have planned to criticize the new repressions at what came to be known as the “February–March” 1937 plenum of the Central Committee. Uniform Sale of Securities Act . It was, or was the basis of, a set of real governmental and economic actions. Over the next four years the centre of political life in the U.S.S.R. was the exposure and suppression of ever-increasing circles of alleged plotters against the regime, all of them linked in one way or another with the Kirov case. • General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union – Joseph Stalin As Stalin noted, no deviations remained to be combated. By the mid-1930’s Stalin believed that the Bolshevik Party ‘Old Guard’ represented a threat to him and … Soviet Union - Soviet Union - Into the war: 1940–45: The period between the Pact of 1939 and the German invasion saw internal consolidation. A group of important figures debated replacing him as general secretary by Kirov, while retaining him in some more honorary post. Understanding of the economic side of the industrialization drive of the 1930s was long confused by two factors. The Soviets provided a few hundred tanks and aircraft and a few thousand military specialists, and in addition as many as 42,000 volunteers of the International Brigades were largely raised by the Comintern. And he had, in any case, for several years been sounding out the possibility of an alternative policy based on accommodation with Hitler. It is now clear that Stalin had no intention of becoming involved militarily. There was justifiable mistrust on both sides, and the Western powers handled the negotiations reluctantly and clumsily. Veterans march on Washington—most leave after Senate rejects payment of cash bonuses; others removed by troops under Douglas MacArthur. It was announced that Aleksey Stakhanov, a miner, had devised a method for immensely increasing productivity. The early months of 1937 had seen the defeat of the last attempt to restrain Stalin. Events of 1930. It was only then revealed by Soviet economists that the true rate of growth in production over the period (including that of the Second Five-Year Plan, slightly less strongly stressing heavy industry, which now followed) was only about 3.5 percent per annum, about the same as that of Germany over the same span of time. The 1930s were dominated by the Great Depression in the United States and the rise of Nazi Germany in Europe. 1914: World War I breaks out in the Balkans, pitting Britain, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, USA and Japan against Austria, Germany and Turkey (400,000 Russian soldiers die in 1914 alone) 1916: Russia has already suffered almost two million deaths in WWI . Zinovyev, Kamenev, and several score of their followers were arrested and sentenced in closed court to jail terms as having “political responsibility” for (though not yet direct involvement in) the murder. On February 18, 1937, Stalin’s old ally and Politburo colleague Ordzhonikidze committed suicide. One result was that there were continual organizational problems. The following lists events that happened during 1930 in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Under the Secret Protocols of the Pact (as amended later in the month) the Soviet Union received western Ukraine and western Belorussia, together with the three Baltic states, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Even then, fearing Allied involvement, Stalin granted terms little worse than those offered in 1939 and dropped the Kuusinen “government.” The U.S.S.R. gained the Karelian Isthmus, certain border changes in the north, and a base on the Gulf of Finland. 1914: World War I breaks out in the Balkans, pitting Britain, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, USA and Japan against Austria, Germany and Turkey (400,000 Russian soldiers die in 1914 alone) 1916: Russia has already suffered almost two million deaths in WWI . To cope with the large-scale arrests, special extra-legal tribunals were set up, in particular the notorious NKVD “troikas,” which sentenced hundreds of thousands of people to death in their absence. Extravagant claims were made and continued to be issued until the late 1980s. Some 166 delegates (out of 1,225) actually crossed Stalin’s name out in the balloting for the new Central Committee. Pluto was discovered as the solar system's ninth planet. More crucial was that the main concern was that production figures always be at, or beyond, the limits of capacity, so that maintenance and infrastructure were neglected, with deleterious long-term results. However, the real breakthrough happened in 1930 when universal primary education was introduced in the USSR. The 16th Party Congress signaled the end of the Right “deviation” as the 15th Congress had marked that of the Left. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. In 1933 and 1934, 1,140,000 members were expelled from the party. Stalin's Industralization drive … The plan was thereafter a permanent feature of Soviet life; the First Five-Year Plan was followed by a series of others. The USSR also experienced a major famine in 1946–48 due to war devastation that cost an estimated 1 to 1.5 million lives as well as secondary population losses due to reduced fertility. Thereafter the history of the U.S.S.R. until 1953 was, generally speaking, confined to Stalin’s decisions and the attempts of his subordinates to gain his confidence. Oddly. Top. The effects were long-lasting. 1936: Millions die in Stalin's Great Purge (through 1953) Top. The local leaderships in Leningrad, in Ukraine, and elsewhere were almost annihilated. At the same time France and Britain had belatedly seen that the only effective policy against German expansion was as strong an alliance as possible, and they too now sought Soviet support. And it was a concept—organizational, ideological, inspirational, and, it might almost be said, transcendental. The second, which came later, was the claim that they had in fact secured unprecedented increases in production. By the 1930s, and thanks to the Depression, that faith in globalisation’s ability to spread the wealth evenly had shattered. History of Coffee Makers. A planned economy was to be introduced with, as its first task, the direction of all possible resources into intensive industrialization. There is little doubt that Stalin sponsored this murder through Yagoda. However, this difficult time period did not stop women from flocking to the shops to enjoy the new fashion craze that was arising. Nevertheless, during this period a number of important industrial enterprises were completed, though there was much waste as well. The USSR in the 1930s showed the benefits of having a planned economy. Period: Sep 14, 1930 to Sep 1, 1939. Heavy pressure was now put on these latter three, and they were forced to accept Soviet garrisons under treaties signed in September and October. It is impossible to estimate such intangibles as the level of genuine enthusiasm among the Komsomols sent into the industrial plants or how long such enthusiasm lasted. By 1932 there seem to have been at least one million such prisoners, and by 1935 there were more than two million, with camps located largely in the Arctic (such as Kolyma and Vorkuta) but also in Kazakhstan and elsewhere. He mercilessly supressed his opponenents. A new Comintern policy emerged, to be formalized at that body’s Seventh Congress in July–August 1935: to work toward a United Front of Communists and Socialists, soon broadened to a People’s Front of all “left” parties. In December Yezhov was removed from his police post, to be arrested in 1939 and shot in 1940. U.S. protests Japanese aggression in Manchuria. In August 1936 the NKVD set up the Zinovyev-Kamenev trial (to be followed by two similar trials in 1937 and 1938). In 1936 a new constitution (often called the Stalin constitution) came into effect, guaranteeing all manner of human rights. This unpopularity could not be expressed in a normal fashion, but there were many press reports of sabotage of, or assaults on, Stakhanovites by “backward” workers. During the 1930’s the public began to feel the effects of the Great Depression, many designers were restricted in experimenting with new fashions due to the fall in the economy and the rise in employment. Japan in the 1920's and 1930's Timeline created by Adam-Hakeem Sayed Ahmed . By the early 1940s, the problem of mass illiteracy was by … Members of both groups held minor posts of varying importance. It was charged that the assassin was a member of a Zinovyevite terrorist group in Leningrad, all of whom were promptly shot. At this time a further social and economic component of the Stalinist system became very important. In its initial form it prescribed goals for 50 industries and for agriculture and provided some relation between resources and possibilities, but over the period that followed it was treated mainly as a set of figures to be scaled upward. Some undertakings were ill-considered: the Baltic–White Sea Canal, supposedly completed in 1933, employed some 200,000–300,000 forced labourers but proved almost useless. The removal of all alternative political figures was matched by what was later called “the cult of personality” of Stalin. By the 1930s, and thanks to the Depression, that faith in globalisation’s ability to spread the wealth evenly had shattered. Thousands of writers, artists, scientists and political leaders were executed or exiled. In May 1937 eight senior generals, headed by Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky, were arrested, tortured, and, on June 11, shot on the usual charges. A similar ultimatum was issued to Finland, but the talks broke down, and on November 30, 1939, the U.S.S.R. attacked the country and immediately set up a Democratic Republic of Finland, headed by the communist Otto Kuusinen. As a result of the 16th Congress, held in June–July 1930, and a plenum of the Central Committee in December of that year, the Politburo consisted solely of Stalinists: Stalin, Kliment Voroshilov, Lazar Kaganovich, Mikhail Kalinin, Kirov, Stanislav Kossior, Valerian Kuybyshev, Molotov, Sergo (Grigory) Ordzhonikidze, and Yan Rudzutak, with Anastas Mikoyan, Vlas Chubar, and Grigory Petrovsky as candidate members, while Andrey Andreyev was head of the Central Control Commission, the party’s disciplinary body. At the end of 1932 it was announced that the First Five-Year Plan had been successfully completed. By the autumn of 1938 it had become clear that the terror was dislocating the entire life of the country, including the economy—production actually declined in 1938–39. Plots were discovered in the State Hermitage Museum, the Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory, and throughout academe. Plans outlined by Jospeh Stalin in 1928 for the development of the Soviet Unions economy. At the same time Stalin, Molotov, Yezhov, and others called for great vigilance in the struggle against hostile elements in the party and outside it. But there was certainly an important element of genuine enthusiasts, and the remainder were at least obliged to behave as such. Stalin’s agent Andrey Zhdanov took control of Leningrad, and from 1935 to 1939 almost all Kirov’s following was extirpated. Thereafter there were no substantial changes. This was a misapprehension. Even if the crash programs had been intrinsically sound, the party had not had time to prepare adequate technical and managerial staff or to educate the new industrial proletariat. Meanwhile in the communities of “Russia Abroad” the experimental impulse of Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes gave way in the 1930s to works that revealed only a tenuous sense of Russian identity. The primary task, as to an only slightly lesser degree throughout the Stalin epoch and even later, was the buildup of heavy industry. In the Communist Party the Stalinist grip had become complete in 1930 with the expulsion of Bukharin, Tomsky, and Rykov from the Politburo and Rykov’s replacement as chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars (the leading group of government administrators). World War 2 began in the 1940s and ended in 1945. The Civil War and the creation of the U.S.S.R. Era of 1920's The act of the Russian Revolution which occurred in the 1917 led to the downfall of the Russian empire. There had been show trials even in early Soviet times, including that of the Socialist Revolutionaries in 1922 and the Shakhty case in 1928. The method as stated was no more than a rationalization (in the Taylorian or Fordian sense) of the arrangements for clearing debris, keeping machines ready, and so on, and in fact it involved a large effort by a support team of de-emphasized assistants. Their political effect was different. Finally, on December 27, 1932, came the reintroduction of the internal passport, denounced by Lenin as one of the worst stigmas of tsarist backwardness and despotism. The country was blanketed in extremes of adulation. On the industrial side the 1930s were to be a period of Sturm und Drang. In fact, the USSR was regarded as an economic powerhouse in the 1930s. Post-USSR, a Russian-American task force found that 119 American prisoners in Germany had been held back by the NKVD because they had Russian, Ukrainian, or Jewish names. Over the next few years opposition was reduced to a few party groups who clandestinely discussed the removal of Stalin and the reversal of the disastrous economic policies: Sergey Syrtsov (candidate member of the Politburo), Besso Lominadze, and others in 1930; Mikhail Ryutin and other Rightists in 1931–32; Aleksandr Smirnov and others in 1932–33. February brought the compulsory Labour Books for all industrial and transport workers. Lavrenty Beria took on the NKVD leadership and supervised a considerable reduction in the tempo of the purge. Japan 1920's and 1930's Jun 28, 1919. Kirov’s death was followed at once by a decree on the summary trial of terrorists. Soviet Union from 1930 to 1940 (Efimov 1933) By the beginning of the 1930s, Stalin was in full in control of Soviet Union. 6th January » The first Diesel engine diesel-engined automobile trip is completed, from Indianapolis Indianapolis, Indiana, to New York City New York, New York. The 17th Party Congress, assembling in January 1934, was described as the Congress of Victors. And these cases were presented as the crucial element in the country’s public life. The new workers’ stratum, given much money and prestige, reflected the increasingly caste-oriented nature of Stalinist society, of which the bureaucracy-intelligentsia was the most notable feature. Japan gets some territorial gain in the pacific. However, the real breakthrough happened in 1930 when universal primary education was introduced in the USSR. 30s were characterized by Red Terror, or Stalinshina, which took millions of lives. What Happened to Spanish Children Sent to the USSR in the 1930s? Top. The treaties guaranteed that there would be no interference in their internal politics. It was not until the early 1960s that the population became equally urban and rural. Timeline of Germany (1930s) Jan 30, 1933. In all not fewer than some 5 million people were arrested, of whom no more than 10 percent survived. From 1933 to 1934 the context changed abruptly. Of the 700 writers attending the Congress, only about 50 survived to see the Second Congress in 1954, though the average age in 1934 was under 40. Over the next two years almost all their senior colleagues were arrested, tried in secret, and executed: 3 of the 5 marshals, 13 of the 15 army commanders, 50 of the 57 corps commanders, and 6 of the 7 fleet admirals and admirals grade I. During 1937 and 1938 the terror reached its climax. However, this difficult time period did not stop women from flocking to the shops to enjoy the new fashion craze that was arising. p.340 World War 1 began in 1914 and Great Depression happened in the 1930s. All independence of mind on the part of any of the Stalinist leadership had effectively vanished. At the end of 1934, on December 1, came an event that was to be crucial to the final establishment of the Stalinist system. Even in 1940 just over two-thirds of the population was classified as rural and just under one-third as urban. ; 26th January » The Indian National Congress declares 26 January as Independence Day or as the day for Purna Swaraj named Poorna Swaraj ("Complete Independence") which occurred 17 years later. On the other hand, the great Dneproges dam was a generally successful hydroelectric project on the largest scale. In March punitive measures against negligence were announced, followed by a decree holding workers responsible for damage done to instruments or materials. The same applied in all the professions. And there were, from Stalin’s point of view, further signs of insubordination. At the same time, pay and rations were linked to productivity. July 1932 saw the abrogation of Article 37 of the 1922 Labour Code, under which the transfer of a worker from one enterprise to another could be effected only with his consent. Joseph Stalin had shared power with Zinoviev and Kamenev in the time after the death of Lenin (1924) and he had no intention of ever being put in that position again. Learn how and when to remove this template message, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Congress of Soviets, Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Soviet Union, 16th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), "Igor Netto Bio, Stats, and Results | Olympics at Sports-Reference.com", "Soviet Union and Russian Players' in the World Cup Final Tournaments", "Статья из книги Ф.Раззакова "Свет погасших звезд, "Sergey Popov Bio, Stats, and Results | Olympics at Sports-Reference.com", "Рыжкин Владимир Алексеевич. The officer corps as a whole lost about half its members. And there was a noticeable, if not a major, thaw, including the end of bread rationing in 1935. (Trotsky was killed by an NKVD agent in 1940.). In the two latter cases (and in certain others) Stalin sought to have the offenders executed and was thwarted by a Politburo majority. (It has since been demoted … In U.S., Congress sets up Reconstruction Finance Corporation to stimulate economy. On that date Kirov was assassinated in the Smolny building at Leningrad, ostensibly by a disgruntled communist, whose access to his victim had been arranged by senior local officials of the NKVD (People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs), as the secret police, reorganized in 1934 under Genrikh Yagoda, was now called. February 18, 1930. Bukharin, Rykov, and others, among them the former police commissar Yagoda, confessed to several murders, including those of Kirov and the writer Maxim Gorky, as well as to treason, espionage, and so on. During the 1930s, Stalin sought to eliminate all barriers to his complete and total exercise of power. Bukharin was accused of planning to murder Lenin in 1918, though he denied this particular slander. The fuse was first lit at the beginning of the 1930s, when Japan's aggressive Kwantung Army—on its own initiative—occupied China's Manchurian … The purges in the USSR started in the mid-1930’s and continued throughout the late 1930’s. History was falsified on a massive scale to give him a major role in the Bolshevik underground, the Revolution, and the Civil War—in particular in the new “Short Course” Communist Party history, which became the basic text of Stalinism and sold 40 million copies throughout the world. From the early 1930s onwards Stalin ruthlessly tightened his grip on the country. Despite deep-seated mistrust and hostility between the Soviet Union and the Western democracies, Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941 created an instant alliance between the Soviets and the two greatest powers in what the Soviet leaders had … Later in the year Stalin insisted on nearly doubling this rate. But a decision was then taken to systematically utilize their labour. This reflected the Soviet desire of territorial gains. In September the NKVD chief, Yagoda, was replaced by Nikolay Yezhov, from whom the Yezhovshchina, the worst phase of the terror in 1937–38, took its name. At the same time in foreign policy Stalin turned to the bourgeois democracies as a counterweight to Germany. But while these trials received considerable publicity they were not made the central feature of Soviet politics. The army also suffered heavy losses. Famine in USSR. 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Turned to the downfall of the most tumultuous decades for Germany and 65 existed in 1922 a.

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